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The Alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a gradient), is used to compare the causes of hypoxemia.
A-a Gradient EquationA - a gradient = PAO2 - PaO2 Where:
PAO2 = alveolar PO2 (calculated from the alveolar gas equation)
PaO2 = arterial PO2 (measured in arterial blood)
The Alveolar Gas EquationPAO2 = PIO2 - PACO2/R
Where: PIO2 = FIO2 x (760 mmHg - 47mmHg) = inspired O2
- FIO2 = 21% at sea level atmospheric pressure = 0.21
- 760 mmHg = atmospheric pressure at sea level
- 47 mmHg = H2O pressure
PACO2 = arterial PCO2 measured in plasma
R = respiratory exchange ratio or respiratory quotient = 0.8 under normal conditions
Values and MeaningThe normal A-a gradient is < 10 mmHg, but can range from 5-20 mmHg in a normal individual. An increased A-a gradient suggests a diffusion defect, V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) defect, or right-to-left shunt.
Ho Hsuhua part of our Medical and have average installs from 10000 to 50000. Last Update May 3, 2012. Google play rating is 85.2632. Current verison is 1.2. Actual size 228.0 KB.